An example for a CPS solution for smart manufacturing at the device level is the Motion Terminal of Festo, the world's first pneumatic valve, which is completely controlled by using apps. The decentralised intelligence and software-based function implementation make this automation component more flexible than "hardwired" components. With this new component, a wide range of pneumatic motions can be executed in a flexible and adaptive production plant with a single component instead of using several different traditional ones.
The Festo Motion Terminal fulfils the key functions of a CPS in large areas. On communication level it provides several interfaces which are required to connect to sensors and other systems on higher control layers. For the internal control of the pneumatic valves, the device is equipped with several sensors. The device is equipped with a computing core to execute different software apps, which result in different physical behaviour. The element also executes PLC programs. On the actuation side, valve functions can be performed to control the air flow on different ports of this device. Physically connected pneumatic cylinders can be controlled by this. In the sense of the definition for the “collaboration & coordination” function, this field is less implemented. Due to the application level of the device, no coordinative task is performed by the device by default. The device can be configured via Ethernet and is enabled for collaboration by other devices and control layers by an OPC UA interface.
The Smart Shoe from Hahn Schickard is an example for a CPS solution for smart health at devices level. Interesting features of this “thinking” garment are:
- Remote opening and closing for people with motor impairments
- Energy supply directly from walking with the help of energy harvesting
- Automatic localization by motion sensors and sensor fusion algorithms enables warning calls in case of people with dementia
The “Smart Shoe Platform” is a modular development platform from Hahn Schickard for energy autonomous mobile systems. The shoe platform serves as a base for new mobile applications with a broad range of associated possibilities, not necessarily all yet implemented. On communication level, the central microcontroller of the shoe connects to sensors, actuators, and communicates wirelessly with smartphones, tablets, or smartwatches via Bluetooth / Bluetooth low energy. Dependent on the application, the shoe can be equipped with different sensors connected via SPI-bus or I²C, e.g.
- Inertial sensors (accelerometers, gyroscopes) enabling to count steps and measure step distance, i.e. to determine the distance traveled or realize indoor-navigation
- GPS module for navigation
- Magnetic field sensor to determine north orientation
- Biometric sensors for body temperature, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and pulse
With respect to the specific application, the central microcontroller realizes data (pre)processing, data storage, sensor fusion, drift compensation, derivation of vital parameters, etc. On the actuation side, the shoe can feature a remote opening and closing mechanism, provide vibration feedback (to alert or for navigation), active air conditioning to regulate the shoe climate, etc. The “collaboration & coordination” function is realised in the Smart Shoe environment with connected tablet, smartphone, or smartwatch each having the possibility to connect via the internet to cloud-based platforms offering therapeutical, health, or fitness services. In addition, information can be further evaluated and exchanged among different shoes.
MindSphere from Siemens is an operating system for the Internet of Things (IoT) in an open cloud platform, which can be used in various IoT application fields such as smart transportation (e.g. for fleet management) or smart production (e.g. for optimising production processes). A wide range of assets (machines, vehicles, etc.) can be securely connected via MindConnect to the MindSphere platform, collecting sensor data which can be used for various analyses and services (e.g. for predictive maintenance services) via MindApps.
With the help of MindSphere, various CPS devices and systems can be connected (also including historian databases, enterprise resource planning (ERP), manufacturing execution system (MES) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems), thus contributing to an optimised collaboration and coordination at a systems-of-systems level. MindSphere’s open application interfaces include OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) and are aligned to the principles of relevant industry security standards (IEC 62443, ISO/IEC 27001). With Application Programming Interfaces (API) users can develop, deploy and distribute their own CPS solutions and share them among the MindSphere community. Current solutions comprise e.g.
- Predictive maintenance,
- Energy Data Management Services,
- Resource optimization,
- Online monitoring of globally distributed machines.