The main challenge in the field of health systems is to provide a cost effective and good level of care to a growing population. This is thus a growth and quality challenge where a building block approach can enable both this growth and the insertion of new technologies (such as image guided interventions, bio-sensing, regenerative medicine and low-power electronics) to increase the quality of the provided care. CPS will improve personalized delivery of healthcare and will smarten existing healthcare.
Healthcare is today based on standardised costs for predefined treatments. The trend is towards outcome based healthcare which will permit faster disorder and treatment prediction. This involves CPS to make the link between the healthcare system (with diagnosis centers) and the patient status. The building block approach permits an easier integration of new technologies in this rapidly evolving healthcare system.
Societal/Human: The care system must target in priority the optimal value for patients. Everything will be organised to be more specialized to the specific disease.
Process: In order to improve cost effectiveness, the system (including the reimbursement schemes) will give emphasis to prevention, early detection and early treatment and thus have to be fast and secure.
Information: Information will be based on holistic health care including the health situation of the patient and will utilise the whole medical knowledge for diagnosis and treatments.
Technology: CPS technology will permit to optimise the healthcare workflow, the diagnostic imaging, the tracking of given cares, enable preventive maintenance and generation of requirements and test cases.
Healthcare will now occur anywhere in people’s life, especially in their home. Only the treatments which need large equipment or specialised personnel will be performed in hospitals. This requires CPS for less intrusive monitoring and connection with care centers or practitioners. The building block approach permits to easily make use of new smart sensing technologies.
Societal/Human: Mobile healthcare systems will permit to realise some treatments at patient homes, to perform easier prevention and monitoring. Cares will thus be lighter and will less disturb the patient’s life.
Process: Monitoring and alert systems will improve prevention thanks to precise and in time analysis and in any places. Medical personnel will be able to identify health issues before the patient notices anything by himself.
Information: Smart sensors provide smart information since they can be externally or even internally (inside the body) operated: Information is delivered in real-time and with accuracy. A challenge is to correctly address the question of data format in a context of equipment of different generations, devices using different protocols.
Technology: Technology challenges for CPS include the utilization of more accurate biomedical models including medical history of patients, the capability to perform run-time analysis with reasoning features, long term monitoring to securely initiate potentially necessary alerts, communication means for an efficient collaboration between patient and practitioner.
Health Scenario C: People involved in the management of their health (increased level of servitisation)
With new digital health systems people can manage their health by themselves with precision and rapidity. Thanks to digital health platforms, health monitoring wearables, mobile applications and online service they are able to be instantly aware of their health status. CPS bring the capability for people to have information on their body and check it by comparison with norms or performance objectives (for sport, etc.). A building block approach permits to enhance the services associated to that activity.
Societal/Human: Motivated people can take initiative to check their health, control their weight, their cardiac rhythm, etc. and choose their preferred applications and services to take benefit of it.
Process: Smart dedicated algorithms can be made available through applications. Specialized marketplaces permit data analytics with sharing of data sources.
Information: Storing long-term health data of the person permit to identify new occurring disease or disorder at the earliest point in time and thus increase the efficiency of proposed treatment.
Technology: The set of required CPS technologies includes devices or systems for securing individual health-related information (ownership, storage, data sharing and anonymization for data analytics), devices or systems for efficiently utilizing/extracting/sharing new knowledge. In this context, blockchain and similar technologies are currently intensely discussed.